The three major causes of the Russian Revolution were Russia’s participation in World War I, an unstable government and Vladimir Lenin. Added to this was the idea of the good tsar: it was the boyars, the aristocrats, the other landowners who were bad, and it was the tsar who protected you, rather than being an evil dictator. Predict: What's going to happen next? He was not a natural ruler of an autocracy. McMeekin’s account of the longer-term causes of the Russian Revolution also deviates from the standard narrative. This way of life contrasted sharply with those of rich landowners, who held 20 percent of the land in large estates and were often members of the Russian upper class. From the time of Peter I (Peter the Great), the czardom increasingly became an autocratic bureaucracy that imposed its will on the people by force, with wanton disregard for human life and liberty. The Russian Revolution of 1917 marked the end of the 300-year Romanov dynasty and the start of a communist system of government. The vast majority of peasants were firmly against developments outside the village and desired autonomy. The result was, by 1917, a mass of disaffected peasants, angry at increased attempts to control them by the people who profited from the land without directly working it. On top of this, Nicholas was selfish and unwilling to share his political power. In 1914, the country was home to approximately 165 million people representing a diverse range of languages, religions, and cultures. Germany was expected to be largely involved in the invasion of France, as described in the Schlieffen Plan. They influenced the people through their organisations to destroy the prevailing system of Russia. A constitution was being written when Alexander II was assassinated in 1881. He argues that the growth of revolutionary … Russia entered World War I relatively underdeveloped. Conversely, the 1905 Russian Revolution failed because the military obeyed the Tsarist regime and was able to … When the free labor of the serfs disappeared, the old elites were forced to adapt to a capitalist, industrialized farming landscape. Russia in the late 19th and early 20th century was a massive empire, stretching from Poland to the Pacific. A major cause of the 1917 Russian Revolution, was the living conditions of the Peasants and the Proletariat. causes of the russian revolution cause four: rasputin and the czarina date: _____ cause five: revolutions of march, 1917 Many wars have taken place in Russia and all of them were factors of which caused revolutions. Ever more peasants traveled to the cities in search of work. This did not win him any support from the citizenry. Russian Revolution: Causes. … This had happened during the French Revolution of 1789, the Chinese Revolution of 1911, the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Ethiopian Revolution of 1974, and Eastern Europe, 1989. It sparked the beginning of a new era in Russia that had effects on countries around the world. As the central Russian population boomed, land became scarce. She blamed the rebellions and strikes on undesirables, and failed to address the concerns of the people. Food and fuel shortages continued throughout much of Russia. When Nicholas attempted to return to Petrograd, he was faced with railway strikes, and was greeted by members of the military and Duma, Russia’s national parliament. Sukhanov, a left-Menshevik hostile to … This decision would prove fatal during the Revolution. The people of Russia loved their Tsar as a tough father. There were a number of food, housing and fuel shortages. The main causes of the October Revolution was the failure of the Provisional Government and the strengths of the Bolshevicks, however this couldn't have caused the war on its own, so there were other causes. It involved peasant disturbances, strikes, naval mutinies, nationalist uprisings and assassinations. Its chief aim was the downfall of Czardom in Russia. The Revolution of 1905 was the first time the Tsar had faced open opposition from so many groups in Russian society at the same time. In fact, revolutions would often come after wars or sometimes even while it took place. The dates used are those of the Julian Calendar, which was in use in Russia at the time of the Russian Revolution. They ultimately resulted in the overthrow … The Tsarina, brought up in Britain, disliked by elites and felt to be a stronger person than Nicholas also came to believe in the medieval way to rule: Russia was not like the UK, and she and her husband did not need to be liked. There was a strong reforming – essentially westernizing – movement in Russia during the mid-nineteenth century under Alexander II, with elites split between reform and entrenchment. The theory was, functionally, a good one; however, the leadership and implementation of the plan was poor. In August 1914, Russia suffered a massive defeat at the Battle of Tannenberg. Some wanted violent change, others peaceful, but as opposition to the Tsar was banned, opponents were increasingly driven to more radical measures. Some, like Prince G. Lvov (the first democratic Prime Minister of Russia) found ways to continue their farm businesses. Shortly after, when the stampede of a huge crowd, lured by free food and rumors of low stocks, resulted in mass death, the new Tsar kept partying. The rise of Nihilism influenced the Russian Revolution of 1917. Land captains would be sent out to enforce Tsarist rule and counter the liberals. In total, some 150,000 troops were lost in this single battle. Causes of the Russian Revolution Share Flipboard Email Print In October of 1917, the Bolshevik-dominated Soviet government was established, with Lenin (pictured here) as chairman. Robert Wilde is a historian who writes about European history. 1861 saw the serfs freed and issued with small amounts of land, but in return, they had to pay back a sum to the government, and the result was a mass of small farms deeply in debt. What were the main causes of the Russian Revolution? The Bloody Sunday massacre was an important short term cause. This timeline is a chronology of the causes and main events of the 1917 Russian Revolution. The Russian Revolution was, while a huge economic, social, and political change, the result of a number of different factors that built up over time, including economic, military, and political circumstances. The social causes of the Russian Revolution can be derived from centuries of oppression of the lower classes by the Tsarist regime and Nicholas's failures in World War I. He fought a number of wars to expand his empire in the north and west in Europe. His son, and his son in turn (Nicholas II), reacted against the reform, not only halting it but starting a counter-reform of centralized, autocratic government. There, they urbanized and adopted a new, more cosmopolitan worldview—one that often looked down on the peasant lifestyle they left behind. The Russian Revolution dramatically changed Russia from an autocracy to a communist system of government. She was not well liked, and was German by birth. Standard farming techniques were deeply out of date and there was little hope for real progress thanks to widespread illiteracy and lack of capital. Soldiers were losing moral. This and other counter-reforms ran right into the reformers and set the tone for a struggle that the Tsar would not necessarily win. Ruling such a massive state was no easy task, especially as the long-term problems within Russia eroded the Romanov monarchy. Families lived just above the subsistence level, and around 50 percent had a member who had left the village to find other work, often in the towns. Tsar Nicholas II held to three tenants drawn on earlier Tsars: Many Russians objected to these tenets, embracing western ideals as an alternative to the tradition of tsarism. That Nicholas’ answer to the crises facing the Russian regime – and the answer of his father - was to look back to the seventeenth century and try to resurrect an almost late-medieval system, instead of reforming and modernizing Russia, was a major problem and source of discontent which directly led to the revolution. In central Russia, the peasant population was rising and the land was running out, so all eyes were on the elites who were forcing the debt-ridden peasants to sell land for commercial use. The western and southern reaches of the massive Russian Empire were slightly different, with a larger number of reasonably well-off peasants and large commercial farms. The Russian Revolution was, while a huge economic, social, and political change, the result of a number of different factors that built up over time, including economic, military, and political circumstances. In September 1915, Nicholas took command of the army himself. The revolution was the culmination of a long period of repression and unrest. Get Do Now People want better working conditions and more money. At the beginning of the 20th century the Russian factory employee worked on average an 11-hour day (10 hours on Saturday). Upset with class, at odds with their bosses and elites, a new urban culture was forming. Russian government lacked the ability and effectiveness it needed because the tsar wouldn’t delegate, or supportable officials. Few people had an idea the end of Romanov rule was so close, but the festival was designed to enforce a view of the Romanovs as personal rulers. Some historians have concluded that this wasn’t the case; the problem was that Nicholas was determined to govern while lacking any idea or ability to run an autocracy properly. Nicholas was not interested in politics, was poorly educated in the nature of Russia, and not trusted by his father. Food, goods, and other essentials were scarce in Russian cities. Causes of Russian Revolution: • Dissatisfaction with Existing Conditions: The conditions in Russia were not optimistic. As military defeats continued, along with long lists of the war dead, negative feelings about the provisional government grew, paving the way for the Revolution. The government agreed and created new laws that attempted to reel them in. A basic introduction to the Soviet Revolution of 1917. Alexander III, the heir of the murdered reformer Alexander II, tried to react, and sent it all back to Tsar centric, personalized ‘Muscovite’ autocracy. As with other economic struggles, the greatest burden of this fell on the shoulders of the poor Russians, including both the peasants and the urban working poor. The Crimean war took place from October 1853 to February 1856. Prime Minister Pyor Stolypin’s land reforms of the years before 1917 attacked the peasant concept of family ownership, a highly-respected custom reinforced by centuries of folk tradition. Causes of the Russian Revolution. Russian peasants, striking workers, and soldiers, equally exhausted from the privations caused by World War I, take to the streets in Petrograd (St. Petersburg) to protest their living conditions.Over the following week the protests grow, and more than a thousand people are killed in clashes with the police and government troops. March Revolution 1917. Russia had a vacuum that would not react to a changing, revolutionary world. He is the author of the History in an Afternoon textbook series. What caused the Russian Revolution and how did it overthrow the Czar? Petrine bureaucracy in the nineteenth century had become interested in reforming, connected to the people, and the people wanted a constitution. The mirs, self-governing communities of peasants, were separate from elites and the middle class. These workers swiftly began to grow more politically-engaged and chaffed against government restrictions on their protests. Who doesn't? The tsar’s reactionary policies, including the occasional dissolution of the Duma, or Russian parliament, the chief fruit of the 1905 revolution, had spread dissatisfaction even to moderate elements. Rather than being triggered by one event, the Revolution was the result of a number of different economic, military and … These conditions lead to violent riots and strikes ( both food and wage) in Petrograd. Russia was losing against Germany while people inside were starving due to food shortages because of the war. These causes were the role of the people as a mass and world war one. A provisional government replaced the autocratic government of the Tsar; however, the government did not immediately withdraw from the war. The tsar was the owner of all of Russia, a fiefdom with him as lord, and all trickled down from him. Nicholas wouldn’t disagree to people’s faces, would take decisions based weakly, and would only see ministers singly so as not to be overwhelmed. Alexander III feared the zemstvos, calling them overly-liberal. NB. He had borne the expenditure of war by taxing the common people of Russia. This resulted in protests in 1917 throughout the country. Nicholas’ poor leadership led to significant wartime failures in Russia. Answer: Main causes were: Autocratic rule of Tsars: In 1914, the Russian emperor was Tsar Nicholas II. Legally, culturally, socially, the peasants in over half a million settlements were organized by centuries of community rule. Bloody Sunday: The Revolution of 1905. The causes of the Russian Revolution of 1917 included nationalism, an out of touch church, a politicized society, the military, and World War 1. This created a fertile ground for the socialist revolutionaries who moved between cities and exile in Siberia. What were the Causes of the October Revolution in Russia, 1917? ... Lastly, the tsar of Russia was the cause of much disapproval. As a result, the panicked elite class was forced to sell off their land and, in turn, declined. But they were familiar with the myths: of down to earth, angelic, pure communal life. Strikes and protests began in late 1916; however, the Tsarina failed to respond appropriately. Although the vast majority of the Russian population was made up of rural peasants and urban ex-peasants, the upper and middle classes knew little of real peasant life. Cities were highly overcrowded, unplanned, poorly paid, dangerous, and unregulated. European History By the time of the Revolution, Russia was in a state of economic collapse, driven by the costs of war and poor administration and management. War caused great unrest and a large death toll. Even a dress code was considered. The Russian Revolution was actually a series of revolutions taking place in Russia throughout 1917. Definition and Examples, Biography of Alexander II, Russia's Reformist Tsar, The 10 Most Important Russian Czars and Empresses, Biography of Anastasia Romanov, Doomed Russian Duchess, Execution of Czar Nicholas II of Russia and His Family, Timeline of the Russian Revolutions: 1918, Industry and Agriculture History in Europe, M.A., Medieval Studies, Sheffield University, B.A., Medieval Studies, Sheffield University. The preachers of Nihilism came forward to destroy the prevailing rule, society and religious faith and to create a new world. See also: Tsarist Russia 1855 – 1922 Vladimir Lenin 1870 – 1924 Governmental corruption and inefficiency were rampant. First, he appointed his inexperienced cousin as commander-in-chief of the army, then he planned an invasion of East Prussia. All it fooled were the Romanovs themselves. The Causes Of The Russian Revolution Of 1917. the country in 1917. They ruled alone, with no true representative bodies: even the Duma, an elected body created in 1905, could be completely ignored by the Tsar when he wished to, and he did. Events that precipitated the Revolution. Politically, the people of Russia resented the autocracy of Tsar Nicholas II and the corrupt and anachronistic elements in his government. When World War I began in 1914, Tsar Nicholas II was surprisingly unprepared for the conflict. ‘Petrine’ autocracy derived from Peter the Great’s western vision, organized royal power through laws, bureaucracy, and systems of government. Ann Ronan Pictures / Print Collector / Getty Images History & Culture. Russian Revolution 1917: A Personal Record by NN Sukhanov This book was necessary reading for all early historians of the revolution. The Russian Revolution of 1917 involved the collapse of an empire under Tsar Nicholas II and the rise of Marxian socialism under Lenin and his Bolsheviks. In 1916, a full three-quarters of the Russian population was comprised of peasants who lived and farmed in small villages. Alexander IIIs son Nicholas II was also Muscovite and tried to turn things back to the seventeenth century to a greater extent. Long term economic and political discontent led to the 1905 revolution. Lvov became a zemstvo (local community) leader, building roads, hospitals, schools and other community resources. The government was afraid of the developing urban class but more afraid of driving foreign investment away by supporting better wages, and there was a consequent lack of legislation on behalf of the workers. Identify the paragraph and write the line from the text that supports your answer. If this was out of step with the west and emerging democracy, it was out of step with Russia itself. Relationships between the Tsarina and Rasputin eroded the support of the army and aristocracy. The Revolution started during World War I, and eventually the Soviet Union was formed. Socially, Tsarist Russia stood well behin… The Russian Revolution of 1917 covers the major events such as the February Revolution and the October Revolution that result in the established of the Soviet Union. The Russian government was disciplining deserters with torture and death. While the country had taken significant steps forward in the 20 years prior to the war, it was distinctly less industrialized than its allies. Conditions of peasants: Majority of the Russians were agriculturalists. The result was an autocratic regime under which republicans, democrats, revolutionaries, socialists, and others were all increasingly desperate for reform, yet impossibly fragmented. Wars are what primarily caused revolutions and multiple have caused the Russian revolution in 1917. 1913 saw the 300-year celebrations in a vast festival of pomp, pageantry, social class, and expense. By the end of 1916, Russia’s already limited resources were severely depleted by the war. The Tsar ruled what God had given, unrestrained, checked by no earthly power. Causes of the 1905 revolution in Russia included discontent among industrial workers and rural peasants, discrimination against Jews and other minorities, student unrest, the rise of socialism and a humiliating defeat in the war against Japan. Main cause of the Russian Revolution. Freedom of expression was limited, with censorship of books and newspapers, while secret police operated to crush dissent, frequently either executing people or sending them to exile in Siberia. This essay aims to examine the different causes of the Revolution of 1905. They did: a) The acute economic crisis that Russia was going through and, above all, the lack of food for the population. Russia was ruled by an emperor called the Tsar, and for three centuries this position had been held by the Romanov family. Conditions in the factories were extremely harsh and little concern was shown for the worker’s health and safety. The main causes of the Russian Revolution of 1917 were the poverty of the peasant class, the rise of the urban industrial class, the antiquated and oppressed military, a growing intellectual movement, and the inefficiency and autocracy of the Tsarist regime. The Revolution started during World War I, and eventually the Soviet Union was formed. The Consequences of the Russian Revolution Affected the course of the First World War, the economic structure of Russia and the democratic and industrial organization of the great nations of the world.. The Tsar in 1917 - Nicholas II - has sometimes been accused of lacking the will to govern. She had a strength to push Nicholas around, but when she gave birth to a hemophiliac son and heir she drifted harder into church and mysticism looking for a cure that she thought she found in the con man mystic, Rasputin. The first factor that led to the 1917 Russian Revolution and the communist government that followed was Russia’s participation in World War I. In theory, their life had improved in 1861, before which they were serfs who were owned and could be traded by their landowners. The people were suffering for many years and as they were illiterate, they knew no better. A Growing and Politicized Urban Workforce, Tsarist Autocracy, A Lack of Representation and a Bad Tsar, Bloody Sunday: Prelude to the Russian Revolution of 1917, Timeline of the Russian Revolutions: 1905, Biography of Czar Nicholas II, Last Czar of Russia, Narodnaya Volya (The People's Will, Russia), What Is Autocracy? Don't Get Our objective is to summarize the events of the March Revolution. He was physically distant from the front lines of World War I. The industrial revolution came to Russia largely in the 1890s, with ironworks, factories, and the associated elements of industrial society. But this was Russia, and there wasn’t even one kind of autocracy. While the turning point for the revolution is widely accepted as World War I, but the revolution was not an inevitable byproduct of war and there are long-term causes that are equally important to recognize. In 1917, this decay finally produced a revolution, sweeping the old system away. In 1905, and 1917, heavily politicized socialist workers played a major role, although there were many different factions and beliefs under the umbrella of ‘socialism’. 1917 saw two distinct revolutions in Russia: the overthrow of the Tsarist regime and formation of the Provisional Government ( February Revolution), and the October Revolution in which the Bolsheviks overthrew the Provisional Government. Defeat by Japan brought the Tsar's rule into question. The causes of these two revolutions encompass Russia’s political, social, and economic situation. While the development was neither as advanced nor as swift as in a country like Britain, Russia’s cities began to expand and large numbers of peasants moved to the cities to take up new jobs. He was forced to abdicate. Russia was running out of people who believed it. When he took command and went to the front, he lost that buffer zone of sorts, and bore a much more personal responsibility for the events that unfolded during World War I. Nicholas left his wife, the Tsarina Alexandra, to govern. Because after Tsar Alexander II took power he created many … He knew his cousin, Kaiser Wilhelm, relatively well, and while he knew he was power-hungry, he did not expect all of Europe to erupt into war. In order to try and counter the spread of anti-Tsarist ideology, the government formed legal but neutered trade unions to take the place of the banned but powerful equivalents. Famine was an issue on the homefront. But this was not a joyous, lawful commune; it was a desperate struggling system fuelled by the human weaknesses of rivalry, violence, and theft, and everywhere was run by elder patriarchs.Within the peasantry, a break was emerging between the elders and the growing population of young, literate peasants in a deeply-ingrained culture of violence. Earlier in the war, Nicholas’ distance from the front had provided him some protection. The Russian Revolution caused the encounter of labors and people. When Alexander III died in 1894, the disinterested and somewhat clueless Nicholas took over. Why would the Russo- Japanese War be a cause for a revolution in Russia? Even able men who wished to change the future of Russian, like Stolypin, faced in the Tsar a man who resented them. Meanwhile, the tsars ignored this growing sea change, reacting Alexander II’s assassination not by reforming but by retreating to medieval foundations. Additional defeats followed. 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